Automation in Food Industry

Automation in Food industry is on rise. The use of machines, information technology and different control systems for efficient productivity is called Automation. Automation ensures the optimized production of goods and services.

For the last 50 years there is a great increase in plant automation. Computer technologies have revolutionized the automation of industries. Automation in food industry is also seeing great booms. Food industry is now the fastest growing sector where plant automation is employed. Computer or machine vision is also a part of automation in food industry.

Advantages of Automation in Food Industry

Before going into the details of automation, here are some advantages of automation in the food industry.Automation in food industry

  • Product quality through automation is more consistent (in processing the minor variations are avoided that would cause changes in product quality).
  • Automatic process control provides greater stability and safety.
  • It provides improved safety to the plant (an automatic control system has constant vigilance that can improve safety by reacting more quickly to unsafe conditions).
  • With legal and customer specification, automation has greater compliance.
  • It reduced the cost and expenses of human labor and improved profitability.
  • Productivity is increased through automation process.

Components of Automation System

The components of an automatic control system are as follows:

  • Sensors that detect process condition.
  • Transmitters that send information to the controller.
  • An actuator that makes changes in process condition. It may be a motor, valve or solenoid.
  • A controller that controls and monitor the process.
  • A system of communication between controller, transmitter and actuator.
  • An interface for operators that communicate with the control system.

Application of Automation in Food Industry

Automation has many applications and uses in the food industry. Some of these are given with appropriate headings.

Liquid and Solid’s Storage:

In food industry the liquid and solids are stored for processing in tanks. Primary purpose of automation here is to measure the level in the tank. A continuous measurement is done. The inlet valve is slowly closed when the system guesses a HI limit. At HI-HI limit there is immediate shut down of inlet valve. Feed pumps are switched off. Over spills are avoided. Similarly in case of LO or LO-LO limit the inlet valve and feed pumps are switched on. Heating and temperature sensors similarly operate in the storage tanks. pH sensors can also be installed accordingly.

Automation in filling machines:

The filling of food products in containers has been automated. Automation of food industry in this section is very important. The electromagnetic flow meters allow exact dosage of the food product to be filled in bottles, packages etc. It increases the efficiency of the system. Precise bottling volume can even be adjusted during filling.

Cleaning in Place (CIP):

Cleaning in place is also an essential step in food plants. It is also quite a complex system with different pipes for hot and cold water, acids, alkali etc. Food industries now a days have automated CIP systems.

Automation CIP

Automation in fermentation:

Fermentation technology is the base of many food products. In this technology micro organisms are employed which convert carbohydrates into simple alcohols. Products formed include Yogurt, Bread, Vinegar, Cheese and Sauerkraut etc.
Every step of fermentation like malting, fermenting, mashing etc require proper monitoring. This control and surveillance can be best applied through automation systems.

Other applications:

There are many other applications of automation in food industry. Automation is employed in drying of foods for processing. It saves labor and time. Similarly computer aided vision is used in packaging and filling that discards deformed pack.

Disadvantages of Automation/Automated Systems

Critics have mentioned some disadvantages or limitations of automation technology. These are given as under.

  • Automation requires higher setup and maintenance costs.
  • Social balance is changed due to unemployment. As machines do the work of man.
  • Automation is not suited for those processes or systems in which skill of a worker is required.
  • Automation for accurate measurement relies on the accuracy of sensors.
  • The process and programming that is working behind the automated system is difficult to understand.
  • If an automated system fails then there are risks of delays and economic losses.

Conclusion: Automation in food industry and other industries has changed the face of production. It has many plus points. But there should be a balance between craftsmanship and machine technology.


Importance and Properties of Vitamin C

The importance and properties of Vitamin C are discussed in the post. Vit. C is also known as Ascorbic Acid. It is derived from glucose via the uronic acid pathway. Actually there is an enzyme called L- gulonolactone oxidase. The function of this enzyme is to converts gulocolactone to ascorbic acid. Basically this enzyme is absent in human beings which makes the Ascorbic Acid essential in human diet.

Properties of Vitamin C: Vitamin C is white crystalline substance which is highly soluble in water.

Vitamin C structure

Sources of Vitamin C:

Ascorbic Acid is found almost entirely in foods of plants origin. It is mostly found in fruits and vegetables. Animal products, legumes and dry cereals are deficient in Vitamin C. Vegetables rich in Vit. C include potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, capsicum, tomatoes, peas etc. Fruits which are rich in Vit. C are citrus fruits including orange, lemon etc., grapes, cherry, strawberry, berries, peach etc.

Vitamin C sources

Functions of Vitamin C:

  1. Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid is an antioxidant vitamin. Because it acts as free radical to prevent damage to cell by by-products of cell interaction.
  2. It serves as reducing agent in number of different reactions, like in cytochrome a and c of respiratory chain.
  3. It helps in formation of tissues and healing of wounds.
  4. It helps in strengthening the walls of blood vessels.
  5. It helps in teeth and bone formation.
  6. It aids in absorption of iron from intestine.

Excessive use of Vitamin C:

Vitamin C is very important for body requirements but on the other hand its excessive use can cause some problems in human body. If we use Vit. C in excess amount then it leads to excretion of urine as dehydroascorbic acid. Excessive consumption of vitamin C in our diet results in the formation of kidney stones. Excess use of Vitamin C rich foods cause stomach aches and diarrhea.

Deficiency of Vitamin C:

Deficiency of Vitamin C results in disease called scurvy. Scurvy is a disease which is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages under skin, failure of wounds, fractures to heals, swollen and bleeding gums, muscle fatigue. Deficiency of Vit. C is also responsible for diseases like osteoporosis and anemia.

Stability of Vitamin C:Foods containing Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid or Vitamin C is most sensitive of all vitamins. It is easily destroyed by oxidation for example during preparatory operations like peeling, trimming, and size reduction. It is also destroyed by exposure of high temperature like during conventional cooking, baking, commercial sterilization and frying.

Storage of Vitamin C:

Foods rich in Vitamin C should be stored in cool and dark places. It should be handled carefully because rough handling can cause external damage. Cooking of foods containing vit. C should be in minimum amount of water for minimum length of time. Prepared foods that contain Vitamin C should not be left on hot plate for long time because this results in substantial loss of vitamin.

Fish Fermentation Technology pdf

Fish Fermentation Technology is a book that provides geographical information on fermentation of fish. Fermentation is the formation of certain alcohols, acids and gases in the presence of micro-organisms. Usually the sugars are converted into simpler products. Fermentation foods have been used by man since pre-historic times. There are different types of fermentation carried out to form different products. This eBook “Fish Fermentation Technology” emphasizes on the cultural aspects of fermented fish. Fish has been made differently in different regions. The round the globe trend of fish fermentation technology is presented in the book. The book is quite an old edition. But it has many chapters of useful information on fish fermentation. A comparison of fish products in west and east is made by the authors. The cultural aspects of fermented fish in following parts of the world is presented in the book.

  • Asia
  • East Asia
  • South East Asia
  • Philippines
  • Malaysia
  • Indonesia
  • Burma
  • Thailand
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan

Then apart from the cultural aspects, microbiology of fish fermentation is also a topic of this book. Microbiology of low-salted fish fermentation and chemistry of other fermentation are given. In short, Fish Fermentation Technology is a good eBook to have geographical trend and cultural know how of fish fermentation.

Book Title: Fish Fermentation Technology eBook

Editors: Cherl Ho – Lee, Keith H. Steinkraus, P.J. Alan Reilly

Book Size: 44.5 MB

Format of eBook: pdf

Page Count: 324

Fish Fermentation Technology pdf free download